The Secretary General

On 28th September 2018 the ACP Group of States and the EU began negotiations for a successor Agreement to the Cotonou Agreement which comes to an end in February 2020. This section contains all you need to know about the negotiations.



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Supporting the cultural and creative sectors in the ACP countries - EuropeAid/167697/IH/ACT/Multi - QUESTIONS & ANSWERS, no. 3 - 18-24 January 2020

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23 and 24 June 2004
ACP/28/010/04 [Final]
Maputo, 24 June 2004



We, Heads of State and Government of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States, meeting in our 4th Summit in Maputo, Republic of Mozambique, on 23 and 24 June 2004:

Reaffirming our commitments made in the Libreville Declaration, Santo Domingo Declaration and Plan of Action, and the Nadi Declaration;

Reaffirming also that our strength lies in our common history, unity and solidarity, diverse rich cultures and shared vision of the future;

Committed to maintaining and strengthening the unity and cohesion of the ACP Group;

Determined that our countries, with more than 11% of global population, should play a more prominent role in international affairs;

Re-affirming our commitment to the objectives and principles enshrined in the Cotonou Agreement;

Underlining the pivotal role of ACP-EU cooperation and the need to ensure that Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) contribute to poverty reduction, sustainable development and the smooth and gradual integration of ACP countries into the global economy;

Noting the launching in Gaborone in May 2004 of the review of the Cotonou Agreement and its potential impact on ACP-EU relations;

Recalling the commitments and undertakings made at the Monterrey Conference on Financing for Development, the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg and the Barbados Plan of Action on Sustainable Development for Small Island Developing States (SIDS);

Reaffirming our determination to foster the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs);

Recalling the priority given to agriculture and especially to water and rural infrastructure in the World Food Summit Declaration and reiterated in the Maputo, Sirte and Rose Hall Declarations;

Committing ourselves to global peace, security and stability in accordance with the principles and objectives of the United Nations (UN);

Expressing our deep concern over tensions in regional and international political and economic spheres that have potential adverse consequences for the peace, stability and sustainable development of our societies;

Emphasising that Globalisation presents not only opportunities, but important challenges for the ACP Group, which must seek to ensure that no member of the Group is marginalised in the process;

Reiterating the value of dialogue among cultures as a fundamental principle for promoting understanding among peoples peaceful resolution of conflicts and as a cornerstone for equitable and sustainable development;

Recognising the complementary capacities and roles of non-state actors in advancing our developmental and peace-building goals;

Committing ourselves to take all measures including participatory, especially within the Group, consistent with the theme of our Summit, Together shaping our future, with the aim of eradicating poverty and achieving sustainable development, peace and stability for all our communities;

We hereby declare:


1. We acknowledge the multidimensional nature of threats to democracy, peace, security and stability and underline our conviction that these threats can best be addressed through dialogue, mutual respect and understanding based on the strict adherence to international law. We condemn the use of force in efforts to resolve disputes. We therefore emphasise that the multilateral approach to geopolitical affairs, in the context of the UN, is the most suitable and acceptable way of conducting international political dialogue.

2. We emphasize the non-traditional multidimensional nature of the threats to peace, security and stability in our societies. Foremost among these threats is the pandemic of HIV/AIDS with its devastating impact on the 15-44 age cohort of the population, the global drug scourge and related crimes. Likewise our experience proves that threats which arise as a result of natural disasters are equally devastating because of their destabilizing effect on our economies.

3. We are committed to developing our own peace building mechanisms. We therefore encourage the peaceful resolution of conflicts and consolidation of peace in our countries by home-grown initiatives including respecting the territorial integrity of all our member states. To this end we welcome progress achieved in developing an ACP Early Warning Mechanism and the initiative to establish the Peace Facility for Africa.

4. We reiterate our firm condemnation of all acts of terrorism. We undertake to combat terrorism through international cooperation, in accordance with the UN Charter and International law, and in particular UN Security Council resolutions 1373 and 1456. We stress the vital importance of addressing the root causes of this phenomenon, including political motives, injustice, poverty and underdevelopment, while ensuring sustainable economic growth in developing countries.

5. We support all efforts by the UN aimed at strengthening internationally accepted principles and norms to be applied against the use and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). In this respect we call on all countries to collaborate in implementing measures against this scourge on humanity by, inter alia, tightening legislations against the manufacturing and stockpiling of WMD, and to criminalise their use.

6. We condemn and deplore the proliferation and illicit trafficking in small arms, ammunition, light weapons and anti-personnel mines as they fuel conflicts, create instability and undermine development efforts globally. We fully support the UN Programme of Action to prevent, combat and eradicate the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons, in all its aspects, and call on the international community to agree on legally binding international agreements on arms export control. In particular, we welcome and lend our full support to all regional initiatives, such as the Small Arms Transparency and Control Regime in Africa (SATCRA). We also lend our full support to regional and international actions to combat crimes such as drug trafficking and money laundering.

7. We condemn genocide and all crimes against humanity, and demand that perpetrators of these ultimate violations of human rights be punished in accordance with international law. We call upon the international community to take rapid and effective measures to prevent and repress the occurrence of genocide, and to provide appropriate support for the victims, as well as for reconstruction and reconciliation. We further call for the total eradication of torture and the effective implementation of the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhumane or Degrading Treatment.

8. We recognise that the dissemination of information is a powerful tool for forming international opinion, with the potential for affecting stability and security. We therefore reiterate the need for responsible reporting of information to ensure that it does not jeopardise social, economic and political stability, nor contribute to the creation of conditions which could incite internal repression and external intervention.

9. We acknowledge that political crises which occur in and between our own countries and elsewhere in the international community can have adverse consequences for national and regional peace, stability and development. We re-emphasise the necessity for negotiated peaceful and just resolution of such crises, which will also prevent, inter alia, the pillaging and looting of natural and other resources.



10. We affirm the necessity of working together towards the establishment of a system of international relations characterized by justice, equality, solidarity, development, an absence of war and all forms of intolerance, and based on the principles of sovereignty, territorial integrity, the rights of peoples to self-determination and non-interference in the internal affairs of States, and in accordance with International Law and the Charter of the United Nations.

11. Concerned by the trend towards unilateralism in international affairs, we reaffirm that multilateralism is a key precondition in strengthening global partnership for peace, and the achievement of the MDGs. We are also convinced that through effective multilateralism major improvements in the institutional architecture of political, economic and financial affairs can be accomplished. We strongly support the continuing democratisation of multilateral institutions, in particular, the UN Security Council and Bretton Woods institutions, to promote good governance, transparency, accountability and to give developing countries a voice to articulate their development challenges.



12. We emphasise that the global community must address the issues of poverty and underdevelopment for any sustained and lasting peace and stability to be achieved. In recognition of the importance of the MDGs for sustained and predictable global economic growth, we commit ourselves individually and collectively to undertake all necessary measures to ensure their realisation. We also urge developed countries, the multilateral financial and commercial institutions and the private sector, to actively support the sustainable development efforts of the ACP countries thereby contributing to the achievement of the MDGs.

13. We recognize the need to tap and develop renewable sources of energy such as biomass, solar, wave and other sources of energy. We therefore call on development partners to provide support in this area, which is vital for the sustainable development of our States.


(i) Finance for Development

14. We emphasise the crucial role of Official Development Assistance (ODA) in facilitating our development agendas and the achievement of the MDGs. In this regard, we call on our partners to meet their commitments made in Monterrey, in particular the provision of additional and adequate financial resources.

15. We further call on our development partners to strive to harmonise and simplify access procedures as a necessary corollary to commitments made to improved availability of ODA and the untying of development assistance.

16. We reiterate our grave concern with the negative impacts of the debt burden, both domestic and external, on our programmes to improve the welfare of our peoples. The costs of debt servicing are unsustainable and current international measures to alleviate the debt burden are insufficient. We urge the international community, particularly the major creditor countries, to take the bold step to cancel the debts of Developing Countries. We believe that by so doing, developing countries would have a real chance of using their limited resources to meet the urgent needs of their people.

17. We recognize the international community’s response to alleviate the debt burden of the Highly-Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) through the enhanced HIPC Initiative. However, this initiative does not facilitate the permanent exit from the unsustainable overall debt burden for both the targeted LDCs and the non-LDC heavily indebted ACP countries. We therefore call upon the international community to speed up the implementation of the enhanced HIPC initiative, thereby releasing additional resources to finance development programmes aimed at creating wealth and reducing poverty. We also call for a similar initiative that seeks to alleviate the debt burden of non-LDCs and other middle-income countries.

(ii) Private Sector Development

18. We re-affirm the role of the private sector in development. As an engine of economic growth, the private sector is an important actor whose role can complement governmental action in the development process. Therefore, we remain committed to creating suitable conditions for its enhancement which are central for economic growth. We further recognize that domestic and intra-ACP investments are central to economic growth in our countries, and call for the provision of financing for micro, small and medium scale projects.

19. We reiterate the importance of an enabling environment to encourage increased levels of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), including intra-ACP direct investments. We reaffirm our commitment to policy improvements in our countries, aimed at putting in place mechanisms to guarantee the appropriate flow of FDI to ACP countries. We urge our EU partners to reinforce and rationalize the different instruments and programmes supporting the private sector in ACP countries.

(iii) Trade and Development

20. We reaffirm our commitment to a multilateral trading system based on flexible rules, transparency and equity. We further express our deep concern at the lack of progress with regard to the Doha work programme, in particular, the need for special and differential treatment for developing countries, especially for the LDCs, vulnerable small, landlocked and island developing countries. We also call for the preservation and consolidation of existing preferential arrangements that continue to be of critical importance to the ACP Group.

21. We welcome the emergence of the G90 Group of countries in which the ACP Group forms an integral part in alliance with other non-ACP developing countries. The G90 has won the recognition of a number of G8 countries including the European Union and has established a constructive working relationship with them, with a view to advancing the interest of the ACP Group within the Doha Development Round.

22. We recognise that effective participation of our countries in the Doha Work Programme and the implementation of multilateral trade agreements are constrained by our limited capacities. We therefore urge our partners and the international institutions to provide the maximum possible resources to build and reinforce our supply and trading capacities based on our requirements, so as to fully exploit our market access opportunities. Valuable donor initiatives such as the Integrated Framework and the Joint Integrated Technical Assistance Programme to Selected Least Developed and Other Africans Countries (JITAP) and other mechanisms aimed at providing funding and support for capacity building in the trade context, should be enhanced.

23. We welcome the decision on cotton subsidies that was publicized on 18 June 2004 by the WTO’s dispute settlement body. The decision constitutes a significant progress in the search for a definitive solution to the complete elimination of cotton subsidies. It is additional proof of the justice of the ACP producers claims which are aimed at restructuring the Cotton market. We urge the different organs of the ACP to continue monitoring developments of the issue.

24. We regret the challenge in the WTO by Australia, Brazil and Thailand against the EC Sugar regime which, if upheld, may have serious adverse effect on the ACP sugar supplying states under the Sugar Protocol. We call on the EU to continue to honour and ensure, the integrity of the ACP-EU Sugar Protocol, in particular the trade and economic benefits it provides to the ACP States concerned.

(iv) Agriculture and Development

25. We fully recognize the fundamental importance of agricultural development to economic growth. Since agriculture is the main source of livelihood for the populations in ACP countries, poverty eradication and the elimination of hunger hinged upon agriculture development. We therefore commit ourselves to strengthen the development of agriculture and related value added activities, rural development and food security at national and regional levels. To this end, we support the formulation of appropriate programmes under the ACP-EC Development Cooperation Framework to include safety nets and maintenance of food reserves. We further call upon FAO and other partners to provide and/or increase technical and other forms of assistance. We also resolve to accord highest priority to investments in water control and management with a view to increasing agricultural productivity and ensuring a more stable agricultural output.



26. We are committed to policies that focus on addressing the needs of the most vulnerable sections of our communities, and to that end we call for increased international support of programmes designed to assist them.

(i) Universal Primary Education

27. The attainment of universal primary education by 2015 is a central target for the development of our countries. We therefore commit ourselves to mobilise adequate resources and put in place appropriate policies in support of this objective. We urge the donor community to increase its development assistance towards the education sector in support of national programmes for human resource capacity building.

(ii) Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women

28. We recognise that the empowerment of women is crucial to the development of our societies. We pledge to ensure that our legal and institutional structures provide adequate guarantees, which protect and enhance the political, economic and social status of women. We condemn the exploitation of women in the international sex trade and trafficking that exploits poverty in ACP countries. We further condemn child abuse and child trafficking. We call upon the UN system to take necessary steps to stop these practices.


(iii) Child Mortality

29. We deplore the fact that child mortality rates in ACP countries continue to be higher than in other parts of the world. Recognising the need for significant improvement in primary health care, including the provision of vaccines, as well as in education, we urge partner countries and other international institutions, particularly those in finance and trade to also make major efforts to assist us in this field.

(iv) Maternal Health

30. We are deeply concerned about the high maternal mortality ratio in developing countries. We commit ourselves to promote maternal health by reducing maternal mortality through sharing best practices and information. Preventing and reducing maternal mortality is an issue of social justice and human rights, and we therefore call upon the international community to improve conditions and mobilise resources for health systems in our countries.

(v) HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other Diseases

31. We express grave concern over the effects of HIV/AIDS, Malaria, Tuberculosis, and other poverty related diseases on the lives and development of our peoples. We therefore welcome and fully support the initiatives and activities of the Global Fund, and other cooperating partners, but call for the simplification of procedures in order for the full promise of the Fund to be realised.

32. We are deeply concerned that millions of people are dying of infectious diseases in developing countries every year despite the advances in medical science. In particular, we welcome the steps taken to permit the availability of certain retro-viral treatments for HIV/AIDS at affordable cost. However the conditions of availability of pharmaceutical products remain inadequate and we strongly urge pharmaceutical companies and the donor community to provide the needed products for the prevention and treatment of diseases at affordable prices and favourable conditions. To this end, we call upon the WTO member states to firmly embed TRIPs provisions in national legislations and regulations to facilitate access to pharmaceutical products.

(vi) Water and Sanitation

33. Water supply for human consumption, basic sanitary services and agriculture is indispensable to human health, economic activities and the preservations of the eco-systems. Consequently, we are resolved to provide safe drinking water, small scale irrigation, specially through the maximum utilization of traditional irrigation systems and local technologies as well as increased and improved affordable sanitation services. The attainment of our objectives calls for increased efforts in the developing countries and in this regard, we welcome the establishment of the ACP-EU Water Facility.

(vii) Migration

34. We are concerned that ACP citizens are increasingly being subjected to discriminatory treatment in some developed and other countries. We call for open and genuine dialogue with the aim of establishing responsible and fair mechanisms to manage migration, and foster the development of the migrant’s full potential. We call upon all countries to commit themselves to treating all migrants in accordance with internationally accepted norms and Conventions.

35. We are conscious of the fact that conflict and post-conflict management of forced migration remains a major challenge. We therefore call upon the international community to ratify and respect international conventions in favour of refugees, asylum seekers and displaced persons, in particular children and women.


36. We underline the extreme vulnerability of many of our countries and populations to environmental problems such as desertification, climate change, associated soil erosion, flooding and pollution. We are concerned about the natural and man-made causes of deforestation that are aggravated by poor economic and social conditions. We are equally concerned about the degradation of river basins and other water systems in our countries, due to, inter alia, silting and deforestation. We are therefore resolute in our commitment to undertake and support initiatives to combat these problems.

37. We offer our condolence to, and express solidarity with the governments and peoples of countries recently affected by the tragic consequences of natural disasters and urge the continued support of the international community for their reconstruction.

38. We note with great concern that some developed countries are reluctant to ratify key international conventions in the environment field. We reaffirm our commitment to multilateral environment agreements and call on those countries that have not done so, to ratify and respect these agreements, in particular the Kyoto Protocol, bearing in mind the transboundary characteristics of environmental disasters and the consequential imperative for collective commitments and actions in this field.


39. We underline our conviction that our individual and collective sense of cultural identity is a powerful factor in achieving peace and development. We believe that national policies which foster such sense of identity can improve our economic wellbeing and strengthen social cohesion.

40. We endorse the ACP Dakar Declaration on the promotion of cultures and cultural industries issued by the 1st ACP Ministers of Culture meeting in 2003, and commit ourselves to introducing policies in accordance with the Declaration. We believe that the cultural assets of the ACP, including the physical and the intangible cultural heritage of our countries, are our major assets. Cultural heritage is an inheritance for the future, and we therefore commit ourselves to the preservation of our cultural goods. Further, we call upon the international community to assist in the maintenance of our cultural goods and artefacts.

41. We commit ourselves to the further development and establishment of our cultural industries, and to adopt enabling measures for the creation of employment in the cultural sector.


42. We reaffirm the crucial role of ICTs as a major vehicle for improving education and health services, and for strengthening speedy and effective participation in international markets. We, however deplore the ICT divide between ACP countries and leading emerging markets, as well as the developed world. We are committed to establishing appropriate national and regional policies, which can help to bridge this divide, and urge the developed world to do likewise.

43. We welcome the Declaration and Plan of Action of the 1st Phase of the World Summit on the Information Society, and in particular, the role of ICTs in achieving the MDGs. We call upon our partners to grant financial and technical support in accordance with the Declaration and the Plan of Action.


44. We are convinced that the visibility of the ACP Group should be enhanced by improved communication within ACP countries and between them and the wider international community. In this regard, we acknowledge the value of our active participation in the search for durable solutions to global issues, pursuant to the Group’s vision for the future as a global player and equal partner in international affairs. In this respect, we commend our Group for the leadership shown at the 5th WTO Ministerial Conference in Cancun, and mandate Council to further galvanise ACP leadership on global issues.


45. We acknowledge the mutual advantages of our relations with traditional and new partners. We therefore value and place high priority on maintaining and strengthening these relations, and in particular with the European Union. We underline the core principle of partnership as enshrined in the Cotonou Agreement as the basis of ACP-EU relations, and we therefore commit ourselves to working with our partners to achieve the full potential of this partnership.

A. European Union

46. We welcome the ten new member states of the EU to the ACP-EU family. While acknowledging the acceptance of the new member states of the acquis communitaire, the ACP is confident that the enlargement will strengthen the traditional ACP-EU relations, especially the enhancement of trade relations and development finance.

47. We are particularly concerned with recent trends regarding the priority accorded to development in overall EU policies. We insist that, for the realisation of the core objectives of the Cotonou Agreement, it is essential that the EU accord development its rightful place in ACP-EU relations.

48. We emphasise strongly that EPAs must be instruments for ACP development and poverty eradication. In this regard, negotiations of EPAs must firstly focus on addressing capacity and infrastructural constraints confronting ACP countries. EPAs must also enhance ACP regional integration. Further, we believe that ACP countries should have recourse to simple and pre-emptive safeguards for sensitive products within EPA arrangements.

49. We strongly urge the EU, in the process of its Common Agriculture Policy (CAP) reform, to examine thoroughly the effects on ACP economies with the view to mitigating any possible deleterious impacts. We are concerned by existing and potential damage to commodity export earnings through changes in the Common Market organization for key products. To this end, we also urge the EU to give due consideration to these adverse effects, in particular, with regard to bananas, sugar, rice and tuna, and responding appropriately to economic and trade interests of the ACP countries. Further, the EU should facilitate improved market access for ACP agricultural and value added food exports.

50. We equally urge the EU to honour the provisions of Article 36(4) of the Cotonou Agreement, in particular the safeguarding of the benefits accruing to the ACP States from the Sugar Protocol. We therefore call on the European Union to ensure that under the future EC Sugar regime the ACP Protocol Sugar supplying states are guaranteed the same level of export earnings on a stable and predictable basis as provided to the EU sugar producers under the European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund (EAGGF).

51. We call on the European Union, in keeping with its treaty and other obligations to ACP banana exporters, to ensure that the regulation of the EU banana market delivers fair and remunerative prices to producers and continues to provide a level of protection sufficient to ensure a viable outlet for ACP suppliers, including the most vulnerable which are currently restructuring with the assistance of the EU and other supporting institutions/organizations.

52. We are concerned that non tariff barriers, including stringent sanitary and phytosanitary measures and rules of origin for ACP exports to EU remain serious impediments to trade. We urge the EU to make a clear political commitment to adopt measures that will support ACP exports, in particular revising the existing rules of origin so as to permit processing in ACP countries of non-ACP originating raw materials and other imported inputs.

53. We are also concerned with the EU suspension of development finance cooperation with certain ACP States that has deprived these States of resources that could have positively contributed to the realization of their development objectives. We call on the EU to continue its engagement with the concerned ACP States, and to speed up the necessary process of political dialogue under the Cotonou Agreement, with a view to normalizing relations leading to the full and rapid resumption of development cooperation.

B. Other Partners

54. We recognise that there are numerous advantages in diversifying ACP external relations. We are therefore determined to strengthen mutually advantageous partnerships with countries, regions and international organisations in our quest to develop a global partnership for the development of our countries. In this regard, we acknowledge the value of the support received from the Commonwealth, Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) and the various UN institutions, and look forward to their continued cooperation in meeting our development goals.



55. We recognise that the great diversity of economic, social and environmental conditions is the source of our strength, which, used collectively, will support the development of all ACP countries and regions. To this end, we commit ourselves to united action.

56. We re-affirm that sub-regional and regional organisations are valuable assets for our development. We therefore undertake to ensure that our respective organisations adopt the necessary measures to strengthen cooperation not only amongst themselves, but also with ACP governments.

57. We acknowledge that the rapidly changing geo-political, economic and social environments represent a constant challenge to the unity and cohesion of the ACP Group. In this regard, we instruct the Council of Ministers to continue its efforts towards ensuring that the most suitable institutional and financial means are available to the ACP Group to meet these challenges and to better position itself at the international level.

58. We declare our firm commitment to collaborate among ourselves in the advancement of our peoples and in the global struggle for peace, stability and sustainable development, in the spirit of the theme of the Summit, “Together shaping our future”.

Done at Maputo, 24 June 2004

For the Summit
The President

H.E. Mr. Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO
President of the Republic of Mozambique

Rue de l'Aqueduc 118
Ixelles - 1050, Bruxelles - Brussels
Belgique - Belgium
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